Spaceship Earth

[Darwin fish]


Books and Articles : A to J


indicates key resource
indicates highly recommended reading


Boulding, Kenneth E., 1966, "The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth". In H. Jarrett (ed.), Environmental Quality in a Growing Economy, pp. 3-14. Baltimore, MD: Resources for the Future/Johns Hopkins University Press.

Boulding, Kenneth E., 1992, Towards a New Economics : Critical Essays on Ecology, Distribution, and Other Themes (Economists of the Twentieth Century) Edward Elgar Publisher. GET IT HERE

Brand, Stewart, 1999, The Clock of the Long Now: Time and Responsibility. New York: Basic Books. The Long Now Foundation (on-line), and Global Business Network. GET IT HERE

Brown, Dee, 1970, 1991, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee : An Indian History of the American West. New York: Henry Holt and Company. page 427: "And so, in the summer of 1885, Sitting Bull joined Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, traveling throughout the United States and into Canada. He drew tremendous crowds. Boos and catcalls sometimes sounded for the "Killer of Custer," but after each show these same people pressed coins upon him for copies of his signed photograph. Sitting Bull gave most of the money away to the band of ragged, hungry boys who seemed to surround him wherever he went. He once told Annie Oakley, another one of the Wild West Show's stars, that he could not understand how white men could be so unmindful of their own poor. "The white man knows how to make everything," he said, "but he does not know how to distribute it." GET IT HERE

Brown, Tom, Jr., 1993, Grandfather, New York: Berkley Books. A native American’s lifelong search for truth and harmony with nature. Page 110: "The more Grandfather observed the workings of the white race, the more he detested them. He could see no way of reaching them with the truth. To him, they were a lost cause. They were nothing more than a group of encapsulated, unhappy people, unaware of themselves, the world around them, or each other. They did not even know they were unhappy. It seemed to Grandfather that a man’s happiness, his success, in this society was based on external possessions and little else. These people seemed to fret, to strive, and to slave, with little other purpose in their lives than to make things more convenient. They looked upon the wilderness as a hostile environment, something that should be avoided at all costs. White man tried to insulate himself from the life-giving forces of the earth, to remove himself, and to control his environment. In this society, it is a constant battle between man and nature. White man wanted to rise above all laws of creation and bring it under his complete control." Page 118: "Grandfather saw the factories, slaughterhouses, houses, slums, and roadways. He was appalled at the thought that people were starving in the streets while others seemed to have everything they wanted. He found that there was no real brotherhood between these people of the city. Everyone seemed to be so self-absorbed in their senseless rushing, fretting, striving, and slaving for unseen riches. They seemed to live to work." GET IT HERE

Clark, Barry, 1991, 2nd revised edition 1998, Political Economy : A Comparative Approach. London: Praeger. Introduction to first edition, pages x-xii: "The presence of value judgments in economics does not necessarily imply that economists consciously use their professional prestige to advance a personal vision of the good society. For the most part, economists are committed to scientific research in which the facts are permitted to "speak for themselves." However, values enter into economics even before research commences. Values affect the choice of issues to be investigated, the theoretical concepts to be used, and the selection of variables to be measured. ... The array of contending perspectives in political economy dictates a comparative approach to the subject. In this text, four perspectives—Classical Liberal, Radical, Conservative, and Modern Liberal—are analyzed. ... The contending perspectives struggling for dominance in political economy represent dramatically different visions of the good society. Theoretical debates over economic and political issues are ultimately based on these visions, and citizens need to be aware of and consider the value commitments underlying alternative policies before choosing among them." ... pages 92-93: "Alfred Marshall (1842-1924). By rejecting the term 'political economy,' Marshall did not intend to exclude political or ethical considerations from public debate. ... Marshall's motivation for promoting 'economics' instead of 'political economy' was his desire to create a more scientific understanding of society. ... Marshall anticipated that economics would focus solely on measurable phenomena and would therefore be expressible in mathematical form." GET IT HERE

Costanza, Robert, John Cumberland, Herman Daly, Robert Goodland, and Richard Norgaard, 1997, An Introduction to Ecological Economics. Boca Raton, FL: St. Lucie Press/CRC Press. Ecological economics is concerned with extending and integrating the study and management of "nature's household" (ecology) and "humankind's household" (economics). Resistance to this new perspective may come from academia as well as industry and governments. On page 10: "Today's market price to polluters for using atmospheric sink capacity for carbon dioxide disposal is zero, although the real opportunity cost may turn out to be astronomical. Economists are almost unanimous in persisting in externalizing the costs of CO2 emissions, even though by 1993 more than 180 nations had signed a treaty to internalize such costs." It would be difficult to praise this book too highly. [See the Table of Contents, Vision and Goals, and Population and Carrying Capacity]. GET IT HERE

Daly, Herman E. and Kenneth N. Townsend, eds., 1993, Valuing the Earth: Economics, Ecology, Ethics. Cambridge: MIT Press (800)356-0343. ISBN 0-262-54068-1 (pbk.). page 267, Sustainable Growth: An Impossibility Theorem. GET IT HERE

Davis, James A., 2000, The Logic of Causal Order, Series: Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, Number 55, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. The central notion of this paper is "causal direction." GET IT HERE

Dawkins, Richard, 1999, The Extended Phenotype : The Long Reach of the Gene, Oxford: Oxford University Press. A scrupulously reasoned argument that opens our eyes to a new perspective. Shifts the view from the individual organism or survival vehicle as the unit of Darwinian natural selection to the genetic fragment or replicator as the unit of neo-Darwinian natural selection, and shifts the view from the effects on the individual organism for functional explanation to the effects on the world at large, i.e. the extended phenotype. An organism is a tool of DNA. The logic of Darwinian thinking is not just about genes. Positive feedbacks will provide a momentum which can carry meme-based evolution in directions unconnected with, or even contradictory to, the directions that would be favored by gene-based evolution. Cultural evolution owes its origin and its rules to genetic evolution, but it has a momentum all its own. GET IT HERE

Dawkins, Richard, 1999, The Selfish Gene, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Orthodox neo-Darwinian evolution theory from the perspective of the gene instead of the individual or the species or other group. See "Preface to 1989 edition," pp. xiii-ix; and three index references to consciousness: Chapter 4 The Gene Machine, pp. 50 and 59; and Endnotes to Chapter 4, pg. 278, "p. 55 ... strategies and tricks of the living trade .." Discusses evolutionary biological entities (EBEs) as survival vehicles and evolutionarily stable strategies (ESSs) in game theoretic terms. GET IT HERE

Dawkins, Richard, 1997, Climbing Mount Improbable, New York: W. W. Norton & Company. pg. 326, "The main lesson of this book is that the evolutionary high ground cannot be approached. hastily. Even the most difficult problems can be solved, and even the most precipitous heights can be scaled, if only a slow, gradual, step-by-step pathway can be found. Mount Improbable cannot be assaulted. Gradually, if not always slowly, it must be climbed." GET IT HERE

Diamond, Jared, 1997, Guns, Germs, and Steel : The Fates of Human Societies, New York: W.W. Norton. Where Ishmael by Daniel Quinn explains why the world came to be facing a man-made ecological disaster, this book explains how we came to be in this crisis. GET IT HERE

Diamond, Jared, 1992, The Third Chimpanzee : The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal, New York: HarperCollins. "Theme : How the human species changed, within a short time, from just another species of big mammal to a world conqueror; and how we acquired the capacity to reverse all that progress overnight." GET IT HERE

Ehrlich, Paul R. and Anne H. Ehrlich, 1998, Betrayal of Science and Reason: How Anti-Environment Rhetoric Threatens Our Future, Island Press. What is brownlash? Misinformation about environmental science emanating from diverse sources, including dissident scientists, spokespersons, and writers, that generally supports the view that immediate economic interests are best served by continuing "business as usual" and that long-term environmental interests are not threatened by that policy. Often replete with gross scientific errors and severely twisted interpretations. Frequently rejects mainstream scientific thinking. Propagated in the mainstream media. Particularly effective in quelling public concern about environmental problems. GET IT HERE

Feynman, Richard P., 1998, The Meaning of It All : Thoughts of a Citizen-Scientist, Reading, MA: Perseus Books. Publisher's Note: "It is our great honor to share these brilliant and illuminating lectures, published here for the first time. In April 1963, Richard P. Feynman was invited to give a three-night series of lectures at the University of Washington (Seattle) as part of the John Danz Lecture Series. Here is Feynman the man revealing, as only he could, his musings on society, on the conflict between science and religion, on peace and war, on our universal fascination with flying saucers, on faith healing and telepathy, on people's distrust of politicians — indeed on all the concerns of the modern citizen-scientist." GET IT HERE

Foucault, Michel, 1970, The Order of Things : An Archaelogy of the Human Sciences (a translation of Les Mots et les Choses), New York, NY: Vintage Books. Chapter 6 Exchanging, and Chapter 8 Labour, life, language, Part II Ricardo. GET IT HERE

Fortey, Richard, 1997, Life : A Natural History of the First Four Billion Years of Life on Earth, New York, NY: Vintage Books. As a bonus, this is an excellent contribution to the sociology of science, or scientific research as it socially embedded in academia, including credit shifters (p. 154), hoaxes (pp. 155-56, 292), career advancement (pp. 131-132), dogma (p. 161), and academic conferences (pp. 247-49). GET IT HERE

George, Henry (1839-1897), Reprint edition 1991, Protection or Free Trade. Schalkenbach Foundation. "Introduction: For justice to be done between men it is not necessary for the State to take the land; it is only necessary to take its rent.
Our primary social adjustment is a denial of justice. In allowing one man to own the land on which and from which other men must live, we have made them his bondsmen in a degree which increases as material progress goes on.
A tax on land values is of all taxes that which best fulfills every requirement of a perfect tax. As land cannot be hidden or carried off, a tax on land values can be assessed with more certainty and can be collected with greater ease and less expense than any other tax, while it does not in the slightest degree check production or lessen its incentive. It is, in fact, a tax only in form, being in nature a rent - a taking for the use of the community of a value that arises not from individual exertion but from the growth of the community. For it is not anything that the individual owner or user does that gives value to land. The value that he creates is a value that attaches to improvements. This, being the result of individual exertion, properly belongs to the individual, and cannot be taxed without lessening the incentive to production. But the value that attaches to land itself is a value arising from the growth of the community and increasing with social growth. It therefore properly belongs to the community, and can be taken to the last penny without in the slightest degree lessening the incentive to production." GET IT HERE

Gould, Stephen Jay, 1996, Full House : The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin, New York: Three Rivers Press. Chapter 14 'The Power of the Modal Bacter, or Why the Tail Can't Wag the Dog', page 180, Figure 31 caption: Life's evolutionary tree, showing two prokaryotic domains and only one eukaryotic domain, with plants, animals, and fungi as small twigs at an extreme of the eukaryotic domain. GET IT HERE

Gowdy, John, editor, 1998, Limited Wants, Unlimited Means: A Reader on Hunter-Gatherer Economics and the Environment. Washington, DC: Island Press. An Overview of the Issues: An an economist, the most important messages for me from these descriptions of hunter-gatherer are that (1) the economic notion of scarcity is largely a social construct, not an inherent property of human existence; (2) the separation of work from social life is not a necessary characteristic of economic production; (3) the linking of individual well-being to individual production is not a necessary characteristic of economic organization; (4) selfishness and acquisitiveness are not natural traits of our species; and (5) inequality based on class and gender is not a necessary characteristic of human society. In "Egalitarian Societies", page 89: In principle all farming systems, used based on wage or slave labor, must be delayed-return for those doing the work, since the yield on the labour put into crop-growing or herding domestic animals is only obtained months or years later. ... Delayed-return systems in all their variety (for almost all human societies are of this type) have basic implications for social relationships and social groupings: they depend for their effective operation on a set of ordered, differentiated, jurally-defined relationships through which crucial goods and services are transmitted. They imply binding commitments and dependencies between people. For an individual to secure the yield from his labour or to manage his assets, he depends on others. ... page 90: The characteristic of these immediate-return systems ... The social organisation of these societies ... Relationships between people, whether relationships of kinship or other relationships, stress sharing and mutuality but do not involve long-term binding commitments and dependencies of the sort that are so familiar in delayed-return systems. ... page 96: This is fundamentally different from cooperation in any agriculture system where the members of the productive group are not ad ad hoc aggregation but are a set of people bound by more enduring ties of kinship or of contract. page 102: The trivial debts incurred are quite unlike the binding jural obligations at the centre of delayed-return systems. GET IT HERE

See "About the Iroquois Constitution" and the "Iroquois Constitution", The Constitution of the Iroquois Nations: The Great Binding Law, Gayanashagowa (download at

See also "No Treason, No. VI, The Constitution of No Authority" (Libertarian Broadsides Series : No 5) by Lysander Spooner, Boston, 1870. Appendix: Inasmuch as the Constitution was never signed, nor agreed to, by anybody, as a contract, and therefore never bound anybody, and is now binding upon nobody; and is, moreover, such an one as no people can ever hereafter be expected to consent to, except as they may be forced to do so at the point of the bayonet, it is perhaps of no importance what its true legal meaning, as a contract, is. [download at] GET IT HERE

Hardin, Garrett, 1999, The Ostrich Factor : Our Population Myopia. Oxford University Press. Book jacket: "Hardin's forceful and cogent argument for the union of ecology and economics is a must for anyone concerned with the goal of a bountiful, yet sustainable world. Sure to spark controversy, this book underscores the urgency of our situation and reveals practical steps we must take to ensure the long-term survival of humankind. ... The founder of the field of human ecology, he is author of the seminal essay 'The Tragedy of the Commons' ... and the book Living Within Limits ..." GET IT HERE

Hawkin, Paul, 1994, The Ecology of Commerce : A Declaration of Sustainability. Sustainability and "green" fees or Pigovian taxes. GET IT HERE

Hinton, S. E., 2000, The Outsiders. Puffin Publisher. Modern tribal cultures in the U.S. GET IT HERE

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